||Of short duration, usually
with an abrupt onset, and sometimes severe, as opposed
to long-term (chronic) disease.
|AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency
||The most severe manifestation
of infection with the human immuno deficiency virus (HIV).AIDS
is a medical diagnosis referring to infection with HIV
plus one or more defining illnesses or conditions
and/or laboratory abnormalities.
|AIDS Defining Illness
||One or more of a list of illnesses
which, in combination with a Conditions positive HIV test,
indicates progression to AIDS.
||The watery fluid that surrounds
the unborn child in the uterus
||. The person who performs the
HIV antibody test does not maintain a record of the name
of the person they are testing. Positive results of anonymous
tests are not reportable to local public health officials.
||Substances that a person's
immune system develops to help fight infection, or indicate
that the body has been exposed to an antigen.
||Substance such as HIV that
is foreign to a person's body. An antigen causes the immune
system to form antibodies to fight an antigen like HIV.
||A substance that stops or suppresses
the activity of a retrovirus, such as HIV. Examples include:
nucleoside analog and protease inhibitors.
||Having a disease but showing
no outward sign of disease. The condition of testing positive
for HIV antibodies without showing any HIV Seropositive
symptoms of disease. Many people with HIV do not look
or feel "sick." A person who is HIV positive, even without
symptoms, is capable of transmitting the virus to others.
||Used in HIV/AIDS literature
to describe a person who has a positive reaction to one
of several tests for HIV antibodies, but who shows no
clinical symptoms of the s\disease. Many people with HIV
do not look or feel sick.
||The first FDA-approved drug
used to treat AIDS and HIV infection. Also called ZDV.
||Any pathogen (like a virus
or bacteria) present in blood or other potentially infectious
material. Bloodborne Pathogen standards are enforced by
the Department of Labor and Industries. BBP training may
be an annual requirement of certain jobs.
||Fluids produced by the body.
In the context of HIV prevention, blood, semen, vaginal
secretions and breast milk are considered infectious bodily
||A person who is apparently
healthy, but who is infected with some disease-causing
organism (such as HIV or HBV) that can be transmitted
to another person.
||The Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention, a federal health agency which is a branch
of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The
CDC provides national health and safety guidelines and
statistical data on AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases
(STDs), hepatitis and other diseases.
||Refers to symptoms and diseases
that last for an extended period of time without noticeable
||The patient gives their real
name and the results of the HIV antibody test are known
only to that individual and the health care provider performing
the test. Positive results from confidential tests are
now reportable to local public health officials.
||The determination of the presence
of a specific disease or infection, usually accomplished
by evaluating clinical symptoms and laboratory tests.
||A screening blood test for
the presence of antibodies to HIV. A positive result from
an ELISA/EIA test always needs to be confirmed by a second
ELISA/EIA test and an FDA-approved confirmatory test,
such as the Western Blot.
||The study of the incidence,
distribution and control of a disease in a population.
||The causes or origins of a
||The act or condition of coming
in contact with, but not necessarily being infected by,
a disease-causing agent.
||A false negative test result
is one that does not detect what is being tested even
though it is present. A false-negative test result may
thus suggest that a person does not have a disease or
condition being tested for when in fact s/he does.
||Highly active antiretroviral
therapy. The use of combinations of medicines to prevent
the development of or treat AIDS in someone who is HIV-positive.
Often including a combination of a Protease Inhibitor
or Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor and
two Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors, whose purpose is
to reduce viral load to undetectable levels.
||White blood cells (lymphocytes)
that are part of the immune T-Cells system.
|Hepatitis B (HBV)
||One of several different viral
infections affecting the liver. The effects of the disease
on the liver can range from mild and even inapparent to
severe or fatal. HBV is transmitted in the same way that
HIV is transmitted. HBV is vaccine-preventable.
||Another of the
hepatitis viruses that affect the liver. As with HBV,
the effects of the disease vary by person. HCV is usually
transmitted through infected blood. At this time, there
is no vaccine for HCV.
||A term that describes certain
activities which increase the risk of transmitting HIV
or HBV. These include anal, vaginal or oral intercourse
without a condom and sharing injection equipment.
|HIV Antibody Screening Test
||A blood test that reveals the
presence of antibodies to HIV.
||Human Immunodeficiency Virus,
the cause of AIDS.
|HIV Antibody Negative
||A test result indicating that
antibodies to HIV have not been found. The test may be
a "false negative" if the individual has been recently
infected. Also referred to as HIV-negative.
|HIV Antibody Positive
||A test result indicating that
antibodies to HIV are found. The person is infected with
HIV and infectious to others for life. Also referred to
||The term which describes the
spectrum of HIV infection. Time-wise, it is described
as a progression from asymptomatic seropositive to AIDS.
|HIV RNA/DNA Tests
||Blood tests which may be done
for people with documented exposure to HIV through unprotected
sexual intercourse or needle sharing. The tests can be
run during primary infection. These tests are expensive,
not meant for general screening, and not used for the
general public at this time.
||The state of the body's immune
system. Factors affecting immune status include heredity,
age, diet, and physical and mental health.
||The complex functions of the
body that recognize foreign agents or substances, neutralizes
them and has the capacity to recall the response later
when confronted with the same challenge. A body system
that helps resist disease-causing germs, viruses or other
||Impairment of the immune system
functions, thus making a person susceptible to certain
diseases that they would not ordinarily develop.
||A condition or state of the
body (or part of the body) is invaded by an infectious
agent which multiplies and produces an injurious effect
||Drugs injected by needle directly
into a vein, skin or muscle.
||Skin that is chapped, abraded,
weeping, has rashes or eruptions.
||Other potentially infectious
material. As defined in the Bloodborne Pathogens standard,
fluids other than blood that may transmit disease, including
||Infections or cancers that
occur especially or exclusively in persons with weak immune
systems due to AIDS, cancer or immunosuppressive medications.
Examples: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Pneumocystis Carinii
Pneumonia (PCP), Toxoplasmosis and Cytomegalovirus.
||Occupational Safety and Health
|.p24 Antigen Test
||Blood test that checks for
the presence of HIV's capsid protein, p24. Unlike antibody
tests, the p24 antigen test detects HIV directly.
||A disease-causing substance
||Entering the body through the
skin; for example, by needlestick or on broken skin.
||A clear fluid contained in
the thin, membranous sac that surrounds the heart.
||Happening just before, during
or immediately after birth.
||Fluid contained in the membrane
lining of the abdominal cavity.
|Personal Hygiene Items
||Any personal item, including
but not limited to razors, toothbrushes, towels or other
personal care items that may be contaminated with blood
or other bodily fluids capable of transmitting HIV. Personal
hygiene items should not be shared.
|Personal Protective Equipment
||Equipment including, but not
limited to, gloves, masks, eyewear and face shields, which
will be provided by an employer and worn by employees
as appropriate when the employee will or may come into
contact with bloodborne pathogens.
||Fluid contained in the membrane
that covers the lung and lines the chest cavity.
|The administration of drug
treatment to prevent disease in an individual after exposure
to an infectious organism. For example, guidelines has
been established for post-exposure prophylaxis of healthcare
providers who have been exposed to HIV through needle
sticks. Also can refer to provision of anti-HIV medications
(antiretroviral medications) to someone who has had a
substantial exposure, usually to the blood of another
person. PEP should be started optimally within 2 hours
of the exposure, preferable within 24 hours of exposure.
PEP can only be provided by a medical practitioner and
after evaluation of the possible exposure.
|Primary HIV Infection
||The first 4-6 weeks of HIV
infection, when an individual may how some transient symptoms,
including swollen lymph nodes, fever, and sore throat.
These symptoms may be mistaken for other illnesses and
usually pass quickly. It is usually possible to detect
HIV at this stage, however, many people who are newly
infected do not get tested and are unaware of their infection.
Also called acute infection.
||Any substance or steps taken
to prevent something from happening (for example, condoms,
vaccines and possibly antiretroviral therapy).
||Drugs that bind to and block
HIV protease from working, thus preventing the production
of new functional viral particles.
||Under State Board of Health
rules, health care providers are required to confidentially
notify public health officials of the diagnosis of certain
diseases or conditions. Confidential name based reporting
is used for AIDS cases and symptomatic infection as well
||Sexual practices that reduce
or eliminate the opportunity for the exchange of blood,
semen or vaginal secretions.
||The development of detectable
antibodies to HIV in the blood as a result of infection.
It normally takes several weeks to several months for
antibodies to the virus to develop after HIV transmission.
When antibodies to HIV appear in the blood, a person will
test positive in standard ELISA test for HIV.
||Any number of tests performed
on blood. In this context, referring to a test that measures
antibodies to HIV.
||A condition in which antibodies
to a disease-causing agent are found in the blood; a positive
reaction to a blood test. The presence of antibodies indicates
that a person has been exposed to the agent. See HIV antibody
||As defined in RCW 9A.44.010
- "Sexual intercourse has its ordinary meaning and occurs
upon any penetration, however slight; and also means any
penetration of the vagina or anus, however slight, by
an object, when committed on one person by another, whether
such persons are the same or opposite sex, except when
such penetration is accomplished for medically recognized
treatment or diagnostic purposes; and also act of sexual
contact between persons involving the sex organs of one
person and the mouth or anus of another whether such persons
are of the same or opposite sex." Referred to in this
document as anal, vaginal and/or oral sex.
|Sexually Transmitted Diseases
||Refers to the more than 25
infectious organisms (bacteria, viruses, mites, protozoa
and fungi) that can be spread through sexual activity.
Some are: gonorrhea, syphilis, chancroid, granuloma inguinale
and lymphogranuloma venereum, scabies, herpes genitalis
and anorectal herpes and warts, pediculosis, trichomoniasis,
genital candidiasis, molluscum contagiosum, nonspecific
urethritis, chlamydial infections, cytomegalovirus, AIDS,
and Herpes Simplex Virus II.
||Recommendations designed to
reduce the risk of transmission of bloodborne pathogens
and BSI (body substance isolation, which is designed to
reduce the risk of transmission of pathogens from moist
body substances) and applies to all patients receiving
care in hospitals, regardless of their diagnosis or presumed
infection status. Standard precautions apply to blood;
all body fluids, secretions, and excretions except sweat,
regardless of whether or not they contain visible blood;
non-intact skin; and mucous membranes. Standard precautions
are designed to reduce the risk of transmission of microorganisms
from both recognized and unrecognized sources of infection
||Destruction of microbial life
by means of steam, gas or liquid agents.
||Beneath or introduced beneath
the skin (for example, subcutaneous injections).
||A set of related symptoms or
manifestations of a disease that define a specific condition.
||A bacterial infection caused
by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB is usually transmitted
when airborne droplets from someone with active infection
are coughed or sneezed into the air and breathed in by
someone who is susceptible to infection. For people with
immune deficiencies, TB is much more common.
||Term relating to procedures
designed to prevent transmission of bloodborne pathogens
in health care and other settings. Under universal precautions,
blood or other potentially infectious materials of all
patients should always be considered potentially
infectious for HIV and other pathogens. Employees should
take appropriate precautions using personal protective
equipment like gloves to prevent contact with blood.
||A substance that contains weakened
or killed infectious organisms. A vaccine provides long
term immunity against a pathogen by producing an acquired
immune response without causing disease. No effective
HIV vaccine has yet been discovered.
|Viral Load Test For HIV
||Measures the amount of HIV
RNA per unit of blood plasma. An indicator of virus concentration
and reproduction rate, HIV viral load is employed as a
measure of the success of antiretroviral therapy. It is
expressed in number of copies of or equivalents to the
HIV RNA genome per milliliter of plasma.
||When HIV becomes resistant
to one or more of the classes of medication used to treat
the infection. This may happen if the medications are
not taken correctly.
||An organism that can cause
disease. Viruses can reproduce only within living cells
into which they inject their genetic material.
|HIV Western Blot Assay
||A test used to detect proteins
specific to HIV. The test can be used to confirm ELISA/EIA
test results (see ELISA/EIA test). A western Blot test
is more reliable than the EISA, but it is more difficult
and more costly to perform. All positive HIV antibody
tests should be confirmed with a Western Blot test.
||The time period between when
a person is actually infected with HIV and when antibodies
to HIV can be detected in the test is called the window
period. With current testing methodologies, the window
period may be 2-12 weeks after infection. The CDC still
advises that a small number of people may take up to six
months to show antibodies.
||Washington Industrial Safety
and Health Act.
|| The collective term for the
syringe, needle, "cooker," cotton, and rinse water - elements
of the injection drug user's paraphernalia.