HIV/AIDS: State of Washington Mandatory 2 Hour Training



Part 1. Etiology and Epidemiology of HIV and AIDS

Part 5. Ethical and Legal Issues





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Acute (disease) Of short duration, usually with an abrupt onset, and sometimes severe, as opposed to long-term (chronic) disease.
AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) The most severe manifestation of infection with the human immuno deficiency virus (HIV).AIDS is a medical diagnosis referring to infection with HIV plus one or more defining illnesses or conditions and/or laboratory abnormalities.
AIDS Defining Illness One or more of a list of illnesses which, in combination with a Conditions positive HIV test, indicates progression to AIDS.
Amniotic Fluid The watery fluid that surrounds the unborn child in the uterus
Anonymous Testing . The person who performs the HIV antibody test does not maintain a record of the name of the person they are testing. Positive results of anonymous tests are not reportable to local public health officials.
Antibody Substances that a person's immune system develops to help fight infection, or indicate that the body has been exposed to an antigen.
Antigen Substance such as HIV that is foreign to a person's body. An antigen causes the immune system to form antibodies to fight an antigen like HIV.
Antiretroviral A substance that stops or suppresses the activity of a retrovirus, such as HIV. Examples include: nucleoside analog and protease inhibitors.
Asymptomatic Having a disease but showing no outward sign of disease. The condition of testing positive for HIV antibodies without showing any HIV Seropositive symptoms of disease. Many people with HIV do not look or feel "sick." A person who is HIV positive, even without symptoms, is capable of transmitting the virus to others.
Asymptomatic HIV Used in HIV/AIDS literature to describe a person who has a positive reaction to one of several tests for HIV antibodies, but who shows no clinical symptoms of the s\disease. Many people with HIV do not look or feel sick.
AZT (Zidovudine) The first FDA-approved drug used to treat AIDS and HIV infection. Also called ZDV.
Bloodborne Pathogens Any pathogen (like a virus or bacteria) present in blood or other potentially infectious material. Bloodborne Pathogen standards are enforced by the Department of Labor and Industries. BBP training may be an annual requirement of certain jobs.
Bodily Fluids Fluids produced by the body. In the context of HIV prevention, blood, semen, vaginal secretions and breast milk are considered infectious bodily fluids.
Carrier A person who is apparently healthy, but who is infected with some disease-causing organism (such as HIV or HBV) that can be transmitted to another person.
CDC The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a federal health agency which is a branch of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The CDC provides national health and safety guidelines and statistical data on AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), hepatitis and other diseases.
Chronic Refers to symptoms and diseases that last for an extended period of time without noticeable change.
Confidential Testing The patient gives their real name and the results of the HIV antibody test are known only to that individual and the health care provider performing the test. Positive results from confidential tests are now reportable to local public health officials.
Diagnosis The determination of the presence of a specific disease or infection, usually accomplished by evaluating clinical symptoms and laboratory tests.
ELISA/EIA Test A screening blood test for the presence of antibodies to HIV. A positive result from an ELISA/EIA test always needs to be confirmed by a second ELISA/EIA test and an FDA-approved confirmatory test, such as the Western Blot.
Epidemiology The study of the incidence, distribution and control of a disease in a population.
Etiology The causes or origins of a disease.
Exposure The act or condition of coming in contact with, but not necessarily being infected by, a disease-causing agent.
False Negative A false negative test result is one that does not detect what is being tested even though it is present. A false-negative test result may thus suggest that a person does not have a disease or condition being tested for when in fact s/he does.
HAART Highly active antiretroviral therapy. The use of combinations of medicines to prevent the development of or treat AIDS in someone who is HIV-positive. Often including a combination of a Protease Inhibitor or Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor and two Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors, whose purpose is to reduce viral load to undetectable levels.
Helper/Suppressor White blood cells (lymphocytes) that are part of the immune T-Cells system.
Hepatitis B (HBV) One of several different viral infections affecting the liver. The effects of the disease on the liver can range from mild and even inapparent to severe or fatal. HBV is transmitted in the same way that HIV is transmitted. HBV is vaccine-preventable.
Hepatitis C (HCV) Another of the hepatitis viruses that affect the liver. As with HBV, the effects of the disease vary by person. HCV is usually transmitted through infected blood. At this time, there is no vaccine for HCV.
High-Risk Behavior A term that describes certain activities which increase the risk of transmitting HIV or HBV. These include anal, vaginal or oral intercourse without a condom and sharing injection equipment.
HIV Antibody Screening Test A blood test that reveals the presence of antibodies to HIV.
HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus, the cause of AIDS.
HIV Antibody Negative A test result indicating that antibodies to HIV have not been found. The test may be a "false negative" if the individual has been recently infected. Also referred to as HIV-negative.
HIV Antibody Positive A test result indicating that antibodies to HIV are found. The person is infected with HIV and infectious to others for life. Also referred to as HIV-positive.
HIV Disease The term which describes the spectrum of HIV infection. Time-wise, it is described as a progression from asymptomatic seropositive to AIDS.
HIV RNA/DNA Tests Blood tests which may be done for people with documented exposure to HIV through unprotected sexual intercourse or needle sharing. The tests can be run during primary infection. These tests are expensive, not meant for general screening, and not used for the general public at this time.
Immune Status The state of the body's immune system. Factors affecting immune status include heredity, age, diet, and physical and mental health.
Immune System The complex functions of the body that recognize foreign agents or substances, neutralizes them and has the capacity to recall the response later when confronted with the same challenge. A body system that helps resist disease-causing germs, viruses or other infections.
Immunosuppressed Impairment of the immune system functions, thus making a person susceptible to certain diseases that they would not ordinarily develop.
Infection A condition or state of the body (or part of the body) is invaded by an infectious agent which multiplies and produces an injurious effect (active infection).
Injection Drugs Drugs injected by needle directly into a vein, skin or muscle.
Non-intact Skin Skin that is chapped, abraded, weeping, has rashes or eruptions.
OPIM Other potentially infectious material. As defined in the Bloodborne Pathogens standard, fluids other than blood that may transmit disease, including HIV.
Opportunistic Infections Infections or cancers that occur especially or exclusively in persons with weak immune systems due to AIDS, cancer or immunosuppressive medications. Examples: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP), Toxoplasmosis and Cytomegalovirus.
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
.p24 Antigen Test Blood test that checks for the presence of HIV's capsid protein, p24. Unlike antibody tests, the p24 antigen test detects HIV directly.
Pathogen A disease-causing substance or organism.
Percutaneously Entering the body through the skin; for example, by needlestick or on broken skin.
Pericardial Fluid A clear fluid contained in the thin, membranous sac that surrounds the heart.
Perinatal Happening just before, during or immediately after birth.
Peritoneal Fluid Fluid contained in the membrane lining of the abdominal cavity.
Personal Hygiene Items Any personal item, including but not limited to razors, toothbrushes, towels or other personal care items that may be contaminated with blood or other bodily fluids capable of transmitting HIV. Personal hygiene items should not be shared.
Personal Protective Equipment Equipment including, but not limited to, gloves, masks, eyewear and face shields, which will be provided by an employer and worn by employees as appropriate when the employee will or may come into contact with bloodborne pathogens.
Pleural Fluid Fluid contained in the membrane that covers the lung and lines the chest cavity.

Prophylaxis (PEP)

The administration of drug treatment to prevent disease in an individual after exposure to an infectious organism. For example, guidelines has been established for post-exposure prophylaxis of healthcare providers who have been exposed to HIV through needle sticks. Also can refer to provision of anti-HIV medications (antiretroviral medications) to someone who has had a substantial exposure, usually to the blood of another person. PEP should be started optimally within 2 hours of the exposure, preferable within 24 hours of exposure. PEP can only be provided by a medical practitioner and after evaluation of the possible exposure.
Primary HIV Infection The first 4-6 weeks of HIV infection, when an individual may how some transient symptoms, including swollen lymph nodes, fever, and sore throat. These symptoms may be mistaken for other illnesses and usually pass quickly. It is usually possible to detect HIV at this stage, however, many people who are newly infected do not get tested and are unaware of their infection. Also called acute infection.
Prophylaxis Any substance or steps taken to prevent something from happening (for example, condoms, vaccines and possibly antiretroviral therapy).
Protease Inhibitors Drugs that bind to and block HIV protease from working, thus preventing the production of new functional viral particles.
Reportable Diseases Under State Board of Health rules, health care providers are required to confidentially notify public health officials of the diagnosis of certain diseases or conditions. Confidential name based reporting is used for AIDS cases and symptomatic infection as well as HIV.
"Safer Sex" Sexual practices that reduce or eliminate the opportunity for the exchange of blood, semen or vaginal secretions.
Seroconversion The development of detectable antibodies to HIV in the blood as a result of infection. It normally takes several weeks to several months for antibodies to the virus to develop after HIV transmission. When antibodies to HIV appear in the blood, a person will test positive in standard ELISA test for HIV.
Serologic Test Any number of tests performed on blood. In this context, referring to a test that measures antibodies to HIV.
Seropositive A condition in which antibodies to a disease-causing agent are found in the blood; a positive reaction to a blood test. The presence of antibodies indicates that a person has been exposed to the agent. See HIV antibody positive.
Sexual Intercourse As defined in RCW 9A.44.010 - "Sexual intercourse has its ordinary meaning and occurs upon any penetration, however slight; and also means any penetration of the vagina or anus, however slight, by an object, when committed on one person by another, whether such persons are the same or opposite sex, except when such penetration is accomplished for medically recognized treatment or diagnostic purposes; and also act of sexual contact between persons involving the sex organs of one person and the mouth or anus of another whether such persons are of the same or opposite sex." Referred to in this document as anal, vaginal and/or oral sex.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases Refers to the more than 25 infectious organisms (bacteria, viruses, mites, protozoa and fungi) that can be spread through sexual activity. Some are: gonorrhea, syphilis, chancroid, granuloma inguinale and lymphogranuloma venereum, scabies, herpes genitalis and anorectal herpes and warts, pediculosis, trichomoniasis, genital candidiasis, molluscum contagiosum, nonspecific urethritis, chlamydial infections, cytomegalovirus, AIDS, and Herpes Simplex Virus II.
Standard Precautions Recommendations designed to reduce the risk of transmission of bloodborne pathogens and BSI (body substance isolation, which is designed to reduce the risk of transmission of pathogens from moist body substances) and applies to all patients receiving care in hospitals, regardless of their diagnosis or presumed infection status. Standard precautions apply to blood; all body fluids, secretions, and excretions except sweat, regardless of whether or not they contain visible blood; non-intact skin; and mucous membranes. Standard precautions are designed to reduce the risk of transmission of microorganisms from both recognized and unrecognized sources of infection in hospitals.
Sterilization Destruction of microbial life by means of steam, gas or liquid agents.
Subcutaneous Beneath or introduced beneath the skin (for example, subcutaneous injections).
Syndrome A set of related symptoms or manifestations of a disease that define a specific condition.
Tuberculosis (TB) A bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB is usually transmitted when airborne droplets from someone with active infection are coughed or sneezed into the air and breathed in by someone who is susceptible to infection. For people with immune deficiencies, TB is much more common.
Universal Precautions Term relating to procedures designed to prevent transmission of bloodborne pathogens in health care and other settings. Under universal precautions, blood or other potentially infectious materials of all patients should always be considered potentially infectious for HIV and other pathogens. Employees should take appropriate precautions using personal protective equipment like gloves to prevent contact with blood.
Vaccine A substance that contains weakened or killed infectious organisms. A vaccine provides long term immunity against a pathogen by producing an acquired immune response without causing disease. No effective HIV vaccine has yet been discovered.
Viral Load Test For HIV Measures the amount of HIV RNA per unit of blood plasma. An indicator of virus concentration and reproduction rate, HIV viral load is employed as a measure of the success of antiretroviral therapy. It is expressed in number of copies of or equivalents to the HIV RNA genome per milliliter of plasma.
Viral Resistance When HIV becomes resistant to one or more of the classes of medication used to treat the infection. This may happen if the medications are not taken correctly.
Virus An organism that can cause disease. Viruses can reproduce only within living cells into which they inject their genetic material.
HIV Western Blot Assay A test used to detect proteins specific to HIV. The test can be used to confirm ELISA/EIA test results (see ELISA/EIA test). A western Blot test is more reliable than the EISA, but it is more difficult and more costly to perform. All positive HIV antibody tests should be confirmed with a Western Blot test.
Window Period The time period between when a person is actually infected with HIV and when antibodies to HIV can be detected in the test is called the window period. With current testing methodologies, the window period may be 2-12 weeks after infection. The CDC still advises that a small number of people may take up to six months to show antibodies.
WISHA Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act.
Works The collective term for the syringe, needle, "cooker," cotton, and rinse water - elements of the injection drug user's paraphernalia.

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